In the previous chapter the lord Krishna while teaching and sermonizing  Arjuna about the philosophy of karma yoga, has told Arjuna, to perform selfless duty   for   greater universal  welfare without harboring any kind of attachments to the action and at the same time he should not be thinking of abandoning his responsibility. People who do not fulfill their   responsibility are bigger sinners because as per God’s sermon those  persons  who do not work will have to do so as it has  inherently been specified by the nature that Humans   should work and even if they do not they will be forced by the nature to do so.   Humans as per the advice of lord Krishna are expected to abandon the expectation of fruit (results and gains) from their (Karma) work   . In addition to this the humans must abandon their obsession with the vain thought that they perform all actions, in order to make sure they achieve deliverance form the mundane life and that then they are able to see the transcendental and universal truth.  Men however do tend to lose control of their senses and  their mind and intellect  get deviated as sometimes even loss of one  sense   to any kind of lustful desire can make all other senses get out of the control  of the humans  intellect . Human soul, lord avers is superior to any kind of the materialistic failing (Kama) and  the lord says that  the man should control his mind through the intellect and kill the Kama to realize the universal truth and ensure that the supremacy of the soul is established. But to achieve this kind of control a person has to understand the philosophy of karamyoga      which pertains to the performance of one’s duty as a mean to render a service that is devoid of any kind of expectations or the strings attached to the performance done. The lord tells Arjuna, that while it is expected that a person taking birth as a human being  on   the earth will do his duty, without expecting any of the results, it will be blasphemy to not to perform one’s  duty , just because one is forbidden to foretell or pre-  expect the results from the action undertaken. Such abandonment of the action cannot sustain because the nature’s course will make sure that the person who has abandoned the work will be forced to get back into the doing of the job, as had been planned for the person. Otherwise the person will find it difficult to survive physically. Lord Krishna   tells Arjuna, that even though the   lord himself is the creator   of the universe yet he also does perform his duty for the larger universal welfare.

The lord Krishna   explains to Arjuna the historical succession of the philosophy of karam yoga, to impress upon him the significance of the theory which has been    in existence ever since the creation of the universe. It is but appropriate that lord speaks to Arjuna about the historical facts as he had sermonized about the perpetuity of the    soul and the life in all ages and in all times. Lord describes the advent of the philosophy of karam yoga in the following manner,

“Imam Vivasavate yogam prokatvaanhamavayayam

Vivasvaanamnave praah manurakshivaakaveabraveet” (1)

The Great God Lord Krishna said,

“I had   told about this eternal and imperishable yoga (Karmayoga) to Sun God. Sun God had further instructed about the same to his son Vaivasavat Manu and Manu had further instructed the same to his son king Iksvaku “.

“Evam paramparaa paraapatmimam rajarshyo vidu

Sa kaaleneh mahataa yogo nashta prantapa “(2)

“Hey prantapa Arjuna! This way the philosophy of karam yoga acquired through the inheritance in succession, had been learnt by all royal saints but thereafter the philosophy of Karmayoga had been missing from the earth”.

Lord Krishna wants to instruct Arjuna that the Sun God who is the harbinger of the time  and by whose  presence and absence the units of time are determined    in the universe has known about the philosophy of Karmayoga, ( the philosophy of doing selfless duty without attachment and  for the greater universal welfare) Thereafter Manu the son of Sun God ,  too had followed the same   karam yoga  and  he had  passed on the same to his son. But somewhere on the way thereafter the royal saints   and the other virtuous persons   did not believe in this philosophy of karma and hence the principles established have been forgotten about. It can be taken as the memory elapse by the humans as otherwise the philosophy of karma remains imperishable and lives eternally.

The lord Krishna, appears to tell Arjuna that the secret has to successively pass through within the kings through the royal saints, and hence he tells Arjuna that I am passing on the same to you for further perpetuation of the same,

“sa evaayam mayaa teadhaya yoga proktaa puraatan

Bhaktoasi mesakha cheti rahasayam hayetduttamm” (3)

“I have related about the   ancient science and the philosophy of Karmayoga to you   because you are my favorite sincere devotee and a friend. The science   of karam yoga that I have related to you is a supreme transcendental secret and indeed it is a very precious secret indeed.”

The lord wants to mention to Arjuna that this secret is the secret of the eternity of the Sun God and many other gods like him who are devotedly performing their karam yagya forever constantly. This secret is given to only the royals and the saints of the royals, and within royals also it is given to only those who are my trusted friends and who have been able to assimilate and efface their attachments and other ambitions into me only and have become a part of me.  I am giving this secret to you because in my opinion   you too are a part of me and as an appreciation of your devotion and for your   welfare I am sharing this secret with you so that you also may attain eternity and become forever a part of me.

The curious mind of the disciple Arjuna however has a question to Lord Krishna, as he does not still understand the infinity   and timelessness of the God. He asks the God Krishna,

“Aparam bhavato janam param janam vaivasavat

Kathametdwijaaniyaam tavamaado proktvaaniti’ (4)

“But you have been born much later than the times when Sun God was born. Sun God has been there from the ancient times and you have come to   this world very recently.  Pray then tell me as to how do I understand that you have taught this science of karam yoga to the sun God and others in the beginning of the creation.”

“Bahuni me vayateetaani janmaani tava chaarjuna

Taanayahanm veda sarvaani na tavam vetath parantapa” (5)

Said lord Krishna, “you and me have lived many other lives in the past. I remember all of them but you are not aware of because you do not remember any of your pervious births, o Arjuna”.

The lord tells Arjuna that a man may not be aware of the previous births in which he had been born, because he has not been endowed with the insight and the power to look back and remember. But life (through the soul, the eternal truth) like God had said earlier to Arjuna, is continuous and the change occurs only in the physical bodies. God wants to tell him that you have also experienced this permanence  of the greater truth in your previous births and so have I but you will not know because your memory is limited to only to the happenings of this birth.   I had advised the Sun God about the philosophy of the karamyoga at the time of the beginning of the creation because I had been there being a creator of the universe

Says lord Krishna,

Ajoapi sannavayyaatmaa bhootaanaamishwaroapi sana

Prakartim svaamdhishthay sambhvaamyaatamamaayayaa” (6)

“Even though I am eternal, indestructible, and I am a God to all the living beings, I control my material nature and I incarnate myself by using my celestial powers every time I have to manifest myself to be amongst the    worldly living beings”

The lord tells Arjuna that he does not need to get a birth as a human and come to the world of the humans, because he is the celestial, the omnipresent, the omniscient, the indestructible,   and the deity of all human beings, to whom entire universe worships. Yet he says that I come to the world to be amongst them as a simple human but I do have control over my inherent nature unlike the humans who do not have control over their intrinsic nature. I make use of my mystic powers every time I come to the earth to be one of the humans. Hence I am unlike the simple men who die and take birth without their own consciousness and through the process of procreation but I being God manage  my own coming and going into the world  by the use of my supernatural powers and I do not have to pass through the process of reproduction.

Lord Krishna now explains to Arjuna, the periods and the reasons of his coming into this world of human beings when he says,

“Yadaa yadaa hi dharamasay glaanirbhavati bharat

Abhyutthanam taddharmasay tadaatmaanam srajamaahayam” (7)

“Hay Bharat, whenever there happens to be the decline of the righteousness and the unrighteousness takes over and dominates the society that is the time when I manifest Myself and I appear in the world to reestablish the virtue back to its opposition and to establish the order back in the world “

“Pavitranaay saadhunaam vinaashaay cha dushkrataam

Dharamsansaathaapnaarthaay sambhvaami yuge yuge” (8)

“I manifest myself to ameliorate the saintly men, to destroy the sinners and to establish the religion and the morality; I manifest Myself in every millennium”.

Lord Krishna is telling Arjuna that it is not for nothing that I manifest myself into the worlds. I   come to the world in different manifestations in order to ensure that the saintly, the virtuous, and the ethical persons can celebrate their religion and their righteousness in peace and tranquility. Whenever the wicked, the sinners and the unethical people abound the world and there appears threat to the stability   and the maintenance of the  religion, the fair and the moral order of the society, I will manifest myself and come to this world, in order to make sure that the innocent devotees of the faith, the practitioners of the righteousness, and the abiders of the morality in society are not hazarded by the sinners. I come to deliver these innocent saints and godly men from the pangs of unreligious and unrighteousness transgressors.

Says lord Krishna,

“Janma karam cha me divayamevam yo vetti tatavata

Tayakatavaa deham punarjanam naiti maameti soarjuna’ (9)

“Hey Arjuna! My birth and manifestation and my karmas are transcendental, pious and are celestial. Any human being who truly understands this eternal truth about me and have understood the real meaning of the creation and dissolution do not have to be born again as a human , after renouncing this physique because such a person will attain deliverance and will   get incorporated  within  me”.

“Veetraagbhayakrodha manmayaa maamupaashritaa

Bhaavo gyaantapsaa pootaa madbhavamaagataa” (10)

“Many of the humans have integrated their souls into my eternity and   into my everlasting soul, after they have attained their freedom from their attachment, fear, anger and by remaining fully absorbed in my thoughts and after being purified by the fire of self knowledge”.

The lord’s embodiment as a human being into the world in every millennium does not indicate that the God for the   other era does not exist. He is always there and is said to be Omnipresent and is always present in every object and in every   minutest moment of the time. Yet His appearance in the human birth is manifested when the anarchy, the sinful living, the unrighteousness of the social living exceeds all tolerable limits in the world. When the morality, the ethics die down and when the virtuous and the pious are not allowed  to  practice  their faith, that is the time the God   incarnates  Himself   through the human form into this world to punish the sinners and to protect the innocent devotees.

Ye yathaa maam prapadhyante tanstthaiv bhajaamahayam

Mama Vartamaanuvartante manushya partha sarvasha” (11)

“And I always give in return the way people worship me and fulfill their expectations and prayers from me in the same way as they adopt   a manner to worship me. Because all humans pursue the pathway set by me, in their traditions of   performing my worship”.

Lord tells that  “  All humans  in the world emulate me and they follow the way I behave and hence I am always very, selfless, equitable, humble, religious, ethical and moral in my approach. After all it is my sacred duty to establish faith and order in the world so that the anarchical, the wicked and the evil forces are not allowed to grow in the world. I am but the religion itself and hence I must prevail.

Kadakshanta karmanaam sidhim yajanta ieh devtaa

Kshipram hi maanushe loke sidhi bharvati karamajaa” (12)

“Some people worship the celestial gods in the   world to gain success in their efforts. Success in the work performed comes very easily in the world of humans”.

The lord continues,

“Chaatuvarnarayam mayaa srashtam guna karamavibhagasha

Tasya kartaarramapi maa viddhya kartaaramavayayam” (13)

“I have categorized    human society into four    segments, all based on the aptitude and the avocation expected from these members of the fragment. Even though I am the creator of this system of   division of labour based on the kind of work expected as per the aptitude, you must know that I do not do any work and that I remain eternal and everlasting”.

“Na maan karmaani limpanti Na me karamphale saparaha

Iti maan yoabhijaanaati karambhiran sa badhyate” (14)

“I am not bound to the work or the action because I have no attachment to the fruits of the action. Anyone who has fully understood the meaning of the unattachment to the fruit of action as being the universal truth also does not get bound to the karma (performance of the action)”.

The lord describes as to how some of the ancestors of Arjuna have been able to free themselves from the bindings of the karma and the expected results of the karma by keeping themselves free from the attachments of the expectations so that He can persuade Arjuna to follow the path treaded by his forefathers. Says lord Krishna,

“Evam gyaatvaa kratam karma purvainrapi mumukshubhi

Kurukarmaiva purvai purvarataram kratam” (15)

“The mumukshus (the one who has no attachment to the current as well as the future of the human destiny and the one who has become an ascetic) of the ancient times had done their selfless duties with this understanding of the unattachment to the work done and they have attained   deliverance. You should follow your ancestors in their footsteps and do your selfless duty without attachment as your forefathers had done”.

In this fashion the lord Krishna,  is directing Arjuna to disassociate himself from the attachment into the  fruit of the selfless duty to be performed by him for the universal welfare and he advised him to not to brood    over the consequences of the duty so performed for the universal welfare. The duty need to be performed should be considered as the task assigned by the God and in which the God himself resides. But God Krishna was well aware that his favored disciple needs further enlightenment on the subject matters of the action and the inaction, the matter that could be   prescribed as a duty and the matter that will be proscribed to be performed by a virtuous person. Hence he begins describing the differentiation between the action, the inaction and the action that is considered selfless and without attachments. The lord advises,

“Kim karam kimkaramate kavyoapyatra mohita

Tatte karam pravakshyaami yagyaatvaa mokshayase ashubhaat” (16)

“Even the intellectuals are bewildered in determining as to what   the action is and what can be termed as inaction. I shall very clearly explain to you the concept    of action so that you can know the same and eventually get emancipated from the malevolence of the birth and the death”.

The lord explains to Arjuna   that though merely knowing the difference between the action and the inaction may not help the mankind,

Karamano hayaapi bodhavayam bodhavayam cha vikaramana

Akaramanashacha bodhavayam gahanaa Karamano gati” (17)

“It is very difficult to understand the true concept of action. Therefore one should know what the true character of action is, what the nature of the inaction is and what the nature of forbidden action is”.

The karma referred to by the lord Krishna, does not mean the work being done in the routine life by the men, nor does it stand for the rituals followed by the human beings, as prescribed by the scriptures to propitiate the gods. The action (karma)   as per lord Krishna denotes the   noble work undertaken by the humans (as per the position and the status in life) to meet their universal obligation and for the common obligation and done without any kind of attachment to the work and nor harboring any kind of favorite return from the work done. The mankind has been advised to trust and believe that all the works undertaken by them are the works of God and that in every work God himself resides and is inherent into it. Same way God advises Arjuna that inaction does not mean merely abandoning the physical work performed by the men kind.  It is the spirit and the sense of dropping particular actions at a given time that could matter. Because the spirit into action will decide whether it is an  action prescribed or the action abandoned or the action impermissible  by God for that person, at  that moment or on  the occasion. Hence lord advises Arjuna that he should understand, and comprehend the differentiation amongst the three thinly related situations, the karma, the akarma and the vikarama (the action, the inaction and the proscribed action).

Says lord Krishna,

“Karamanay karama ya pashyeda karmani cha karam ya

Sa budhdhimaana manushyeshu sa yukta kratsan karam krat” (18)

“The person who can perceive   inaction in an action and who can distinguish an action in inaction is an intellectual person   amongst all humans.  Such a person is a true transcendental person and he has the will to accomplish every kind of action”.

The lord further adds,

“Yasaya sarve samaarambhaa kaam sadkal pavarjitaa

Gyaana agnidagada karmaanam tamaahu panditam budhdhaa (19)

“Such persons whose sacred actions are all free from any kind of desires and even the thoughts of desires and whose actions have been, purified by burning the yearnings of the desires, into the fire of wisdom, have been called the enlightened one even by the learned persons”.

“Tayaktvaa karamphalaa sangadam nityatrapto niraashraya

Karamanaybhi pravartoapi naiva kinchita karoti sa “(20)

“ an ascetic who has abandoned all kinds of work     ,  his selfish attachment to the work and has left everything to the God, himself remaining ever satisfied, and expresses full devotion into God ,such a person  even though  he is engaged in  an activity undertakes no action and hence he  incurs no attachment to any kind of action”.

Niraashirayarat chitaatmaa tayakat sarav parigraha

Shaareeram kevalam karama kyravnnaa panoti kilbisham” (21)

“A person who has mastered his physical senses and the internal desires and who has renounced all materialistic objects, such an austere person commits no wrongdoing in his life. Such a person is said to have achieved enlightenment of the universal truth”.

The lord advises that it is not the frugality alone that matters but the control over the  mind ,   physical  senses, the desires and the renunciation of attractive temptations into the materialistic possessions and into the future aspirations are the hall marks of the saint who has given up the worldly comforts. He may be called a sanyaasi, a Spartan who gets into those daily actions and rituals as are considered necessary for the bare survival of the body and the mind. Such a person will hold no attraction and the attachment towards his actions. Such a person will not be said to have committed any kind of sin.

“Yadrachchaala dwanddwaadito vimatsara

Sama sidhaavasidhau cha kratvaami na nibadayate” (22)

“A person who is happy with whatever comes his way and the one who holds no jealousy   or rivalry and the one who does not get affected by the happiness or the misery and exhibits equanimity   in the accomplishment or   at the time of failure, such a person of   selfless action   cannot be bound by the consequences of any kind of action performed by him. Because of his equanimity and the nature of renunciation he is said to have realized the universal truth and his devotion cannot be find fault with”.

“Gatasadagasaya mukatasaya gyaana avasathit chetas

Yagyaa yaacharat karam samagaram pravileeyate” (23)

“The work of such a person whose attachment has been completely eliminated and who has no love for the material and the physical objects and the one who always    remains in transcendental trance, the action of such mystical   person get assimilated into the universal truth and the God”.

“Braham arpan brahama havibraharmaagno brahama naa hutam

Brahamaiv ten gantavayam braham karam samaadhinaa” (24)

“An action that is performed as an offering to the God has the God inherent into it. The efforts undertaken with the presence of God are simply considered as the contributions to the God.   All the work done with such a transcendental spirit    will be blessed with the fruits of the   spiritual transcendence only”.

“Daivamevaapre Yagayam yogina paryuipaasate

Brahamaagnaavapare yagayam yagyenaivopajuhavati” (25)

“Some yogis perform the service of worship to   the celestial gods in order to please them for the attainment of   results of their efforts, while some   others of them offer sacrifices in the fire of the Supreme in order to reach The Supreme   and attain self –knowledge”.

Shrotaadeenee indirayaanayanaye sanyami agnishu juhavati

Shabadaadeen vishaya ananya indiriya agnishu juhavati” (26)

“Some   exercise complete restraint on their senses and sacrifice their sensual gratification. Some of the others perform breathing and other yogic exercises. Some of them offer as a sacrifice the hearing skills  and their hearing  senses in the fire of mind control, and other offer their sensory skills into the  fire of self control’.

“Sarvaani indiriya karmayaani praan karmaani chaapre

Aatam sanyam yogaagno juhavati gyaandeepite” (27)

“Other yogis use their mind   enlightened with the transcendence of supreme truth to offer their process of all the senses and the life providing breath to the fire of self- control as oblations”.

The lord tells Arjuna that there are various ways in which the humans perform their yajna to reach the universal supreme truth and in the process; they end up offering their abandonment of the senses as the oblations to God. Some of them get into some kind of yogic exercises of physical penitence to the humans body. Some get into the control of the very life providing process of breathing   by getting into a hypnotic trance to show their devotion towards the Supreme Truth. Each one finds his own way to reach me. Some of them also make use of   their wealth and the pelf to reach me by way of rendering services and arranging welfare activities for the universal welfare.

The lord tells Arjuna,

“Dravaya yagyaa satapo yagyaa yog yagyaa satathapre

Swadhyaa yagya anyagyaaashch yatya sanshit vrataa” (28)

“Many men do the worshipping by way of offering as sacrifice their material wealth for greater universal welfare.  They get into much kind of severe austerities and self penances.  Many of them offer their spiritual exercises while others with determined mindset offer their scholarship and scholastic achievements gained at the altar to appease the celestial spirit”.

The lord Krishna is explaining to Arjuna, as to how mankind, in the world takes to many different kinds of spiritual, physical and cerebral    yagya to appease the lord and to seek the assimilation of their soul and the body into the Universal Greater Soul. The Universal Greater Truth is hard to reach. Only the pure soul and those whom God    looks at   as free from the sins of the earthly life are able to   reach the purity of the Universal Greater Soul.    Hence   human beings take to many kinds of rituals to atone for their sins   and seek mercy of God.  The humans do  all such yajna  because they want to reach the God and become part of his magnanimous celestial existence.

“Apaane juhavati praanam praano appanam tathaapare

Praanaapaangati ruddhwa praanaayaam praayaanaa” (29)

Apre niyaataa haaraa praanaana praaneshu juhavati

Sarve apyete yagyavido yagyakshpita kalmasha” (30)

“Many of the ascetics are inclined to exercise control over their process of breath restraint to remain in trance.  They practice by offering the movement of the exhalation into the inhalation, and by the intermingling of the incoming breath into the outgoing, and thus they at last remain lost in reverie of my worship. They practice cessation of all their breathing.   Some other ascetics do it by way of, abandoning the process of partaking of the food for and thus starving their bodies   . They abandon eating their usual food.  They all are learned and enlightened.  They know as to how-to tender their    offerings to me for the purging of their sins and   eventually reaching The Supreme Truth”.

“Yagya shishta amratbhujo yaanti braham sanaatanam

Naayam lokoasataya yagasaya kutoanya kurusatam” (31)

“Hey Arjuna, the wisest of the kuru dynasty! Those persons, who partake the nectar of the selfless service without attachment performed by them, attain the supreme truth. They get integrated into the Supreme Being. Even this world of humans is not a peaceful place to live in for those who do not perform the selfless –service that has no attachment inherent in it. How can such persons anticipate a better world and attain peace of mind in the world beyond?”

Lord has been mentioning about various kinds of sacrifices, spiritual rituals, self –penances and the traditional worshipping undertaken by men for attainment of their peace of mind and the liberation of the soul. The deliverance   to mankind’s soul as per the advice of lord can come only by way of selfless service performed, by way of non attachment to the fruits of the service, for greater universal welfare. And those of the people who undertake all kinds of service to the Lord with selfish motives inherent into their service and claim that they will find a place of mental bliss in the other world                actually cannot find deliverance from their worry and mental agony in this world.  Lord advises that their efforts will not make them happy in the other world too after their death from their mundane lives. Because such persons do not go to the other world but are delivered back into the same world for doing another penance till such time that they undertake selfless service for universal greater welfare without any expectation attached to it and that the  selfless service so offered is also accepted by the supreme braham . 

“Evam bahuvidhaa yagyaa vitataa brahamano mukhe

Karam jaanvidhi taan sarvaanevam gyaatvaa vimokshayase” (32)

“There are many other types of spiritual rituals have been described in detail in Vedas. You must know that those rituals are undertaken by the body, mind, and the senses. Once you know their nature, you can attain deliverance   of the soul from the consequential tidings of the   obligatory duty and the actions to be performed.”

Shreyaan dravayama yaagyaaj gyaan yagya prantapa

Saravam karma akhilam partha gyaane parisamaapayate” (33)  

“You must understand Arjuna that the attaining of the transcendental knowledge is always superior to any materialistic sacrifices performed.  Oh son of Kunti!  After all, all sacrifices of work   undertaken for spiritual   awakening and self realization terminate in transcendental knowledge”.

“Tadwidhi pranipaaten pariprashanen sevyaa

Upadekshyanti te gyaanam gyaanino statva darshina” (34)

“You should spend humble time with   such people. You should be in the august company of those   learned and the enlightened masters who have attained the supreme transcendental truth. You should go and bow in front of them   and pay your obeisance to their enlightenment by touching their feet. You should serve those masters with a simple and pious heart so that they may share the secrets of the universal transcendental truth with you and preach you about the great celestial knowledge that they have acquired by serving the God’.

“Yagyaatvaa na punamorahamevam yaasayasi pandava

Yen bhootanyasheshen drakshasayaatamanatho mayi” (35)

“You should not become self- conceited   and get deluded after acquiring this transcendental knowledge. In fact    after you have acquired   this transcendental knowledge that reveals the   Supreme Truth   to you, you shall   have a greater insight into the creation of all   the worlds and understand that all those worlds are all part of me and hence you will    be able to look at the existence of the creation within me thereafter”.

“api chedasi paapabhaya sarvebhaya paapkratam

Saravam gyaan palavenaiv vrajinam santrishayasi” (36)

“Once you have acquired the transcendental knowledge about the Supreme Truth and about the   existence of the Creation being within Me and of Me being within the Creation you will be absolved of all kinds of sins that you have committed.   Even if you are the most sinful of all the sinners, you will be able to swim through any   ocean of   earthly darkness by the sheer strength of your   spiritual knowledge into the Supreme Truth”.

“Yatahidhaansi samidho Agni bharsamsaat kurute Arjuna

Gyaan agni sarava karmaani bharsamsaat kurute tatha” (37)

“Because hey Arjuna! Like the flames of the burning fires consume all kinds of fuel and turn it into ashes, the same way your fire of knowledge   and the enlightenment of the Supreme Truth within you will burn and convert all bonds of karma (   attachments to the fruits of action) into ashes’.

“Naa hi gyaanen sadarasham pavitarmih vidhayate

Tatsawayam yogsansidh kaalen aatmani vindati” (38)

“Let it be known that there is no better purifier of soul than the knowledge of Supreme Truth. The similar enlightenment is being attained by the person who has cleansed and purified his soul by way of performing selfless action free of any attachments for the greater universal welfare, in many ages”.

Lord advises Arjuna to understand   the fact that even though mankind has been propitiating gods by offering materialistic   sacrifices but the reaching    of   the transcendental knowledge is always superior to any materialistic sacrifices performed by them for the appeasement of the celestial bodies.  The mode to attainment of the Supreme Truth can be leant by devoting humble time in the company of and at the feet of those   knowledgeable   learned and the enlightened masters who have been able to reach and realize the Supreme Transcendental Truth.   The ordinary human beings   often exhibit their own vain glory and egoistical importance in their life and hence they are not able to   efface their own personality while pursuing their search for the ever illusive Supreme Truth.   Effacement of the self ego and    discarding of the vain pride   in the most humble manner is a prerequisite to   reaching and accomplishment of the knowledge into the celestial secrets of the Supreme Truth.

Lord  Krishna  advises Arjuna to make sure that his  acceptance   of the  humility  of the mind  and the purity of the heart must be above board and then he should  unassumingly  and discreetly approach the scholarly  and the enlightened   persons  for finding out their experiences with the   glories of the Universal Truth. Arjuna should offer his    selfless service to these saints with absolute humbleness and unassuming nature   so that they should get delighted with the services rendered by Arjuna.  These great souls may then out of their benevolence share the secrets of the universal transcendental truth with him and preach him about the grand enlightenment that they have acquired by serving the God. A person who has faith in God, is sincere in yogic practices, and has control over the mind and senses gains this transcendental knowledge. Having gained this knowledge, one quickly attains supreme peace or liberation. However lord Krishna forewarns all those   humans who get self conceited and egotist after they have attained the transcendental knowledge. Attainment of higher knowledge about the secrets of the supreme truth on the   contrary should be utilized for inculcating humility, courtesy and politeness into the behavior and the social character. A learned person should not put on the false airs, which most men often do, and that results into their   not reaching the universal  Supreme  Truth in spite of the fact that they have been able to achieve the higher level of  knowledge and enlightenment.

Because the lord says,

Shradhaavaan llabhate gyaanam tatpara sanyatendriya

Gyaanam labdhavaa praam shaantimachirenaadhichhati” (39)

“The   enlightenment comes to the person who has won over the control of his senses, and has devoted his resources for the universal   service and welfare.  The moment   such a person attains the supreme knowledge, he attains the pious peace of mind and the heavenly bliss”.

And for those who have no faith and the devotion in the Supreme Truth, the lord says,

“Agyashacha ashradhaanshach sanshayaatmaa   vinashayati

Naayam lokoasti na paro na sukham sanshayaatamana’ (40)

“The   unwise person who is a non believer and an atheist has a doubtful kind of nature. Such a person   loses his sight  of the universal welfare and no happiness   can come to such a non believer either in this world, or in the other world and not even in the world beyond  will he ever get his peace of mind”.

The lord however  tells Arjuna that it is ultimately the accepting  and performing of the obligatory  selfless duty for the universal welfare and the attainment of the supreme knowledge pertaining to the supreme truth that can result into the deliverance of the humans from the mundane life    cycle of life and death, and it  can get them free from the bondage of the earthly life.

The lord advises Arjuna,

“Yogasannayasa takamaarnam gyaan sanchhinn sanshayam

Aatamvantam na karmaani nibdhananti dhananjaya” (41)

“O Dhananjaya (another name of Arjuna) any kind of action does not bind a person who has relinquished work   by abandoning his attachment to the results expected from that work like a true devotee through Karma-yoga  and have offered the action so performed to  God . Work does not bind the one who has been able to overcome all doubts ( pertaining to the universal Supreme Truth) by attaining enlightenment and has exercised complete control over his senses “.

The lord tells Arjuna I expect you to act like a karamyogi and get up to fight this war of truth against the evil forces.

Thus advises Lord Krishna to Arjuna,

“Tasamaada gyaan sambhootam haratasathamgyaanaasinaatmana

Chhitvainam sanshayam yogamaatishthotishath bharata” (42)

“Therefore, O scion of the Bharata dynasty,   Arjuna! You must simply remove the doubts appearing in your mind born out of ignorance, by attaining enlightenment about the body and the soul. You must exhibit your equanimity, resort to selfless action for universal welfare (karam Yoga) and stand up to fight this war”.

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